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द्वन्द्व compounds
  • A pair or more of nouns which all have equal prominence.
  • Typically, the gender is the same as that of the final member, and the number is determined by the number of things represented by the members.
  • Examples:
    • सीता च रामश्च -> सीतारामौ ("Sītā and Rāma")
    • देवासुरगन्धर्वपिशाचराक्षसाः ("the gods, asuras, gandharvas, piśācas, and rākṣasas")

  • In some cases when a pair of nouns is closely associated, it may be represented with the नपुंसकलिङ्ग एकवचन ending. This is a common technique for linking pairs of opposites.
  • Examples:
    • सुखं च दुःखं च -> सुखदुःखम् ("pleasure and pain")
    • श्रुतं च अश्रुतं च -> श्रुताश्रुतम् ("what is heard and what is not heard")
अव्ययीभाव compounds
  • Formed with a prefix or indeclinable as the first member, and a nominal stem as the final member. The compound functions as an adverb.
  • The endings of the final member follow प्रथमा/द्वितीया एक॰ नपुंसकलिङ्ग, with the following exceptions:
    • Final member ending in -अन् always take the ending -अम्
    • Final long vowels are shortened
  • The prior member in the compound is usually one of the following:
    • An उपसर्ग (verbal prefix), such as प्रति, अनु, or सम्.
    • The form (equivalent to सह) ("together")
    • A relative indeclinable, especially यथा and यावत्.
  • Examples:
    • प्रति + दिनः -> प्रतिदिनम् ("every day")
    • स + कामः -> सकामम् ("with desire")
    • यथा + शास्त्रम् -> यथाशास्त्रम् ("in accordance with the śāstras")
    • यावत् + संवत्सरः -> यावत्संवत्सरम् ("as long as a year")
Transliterate देवनागरी ⇔ IAST